赵鹏,朱祖浩,江洪友,李利,崔晓健.生态海堤的发展历程与展望[J].海洋通报,2019,(5):481-490
生态海堤的发展历程与展望
The development and outlooks of the ecological seawall
投稿时间:2019-05-06  修订日期:2019-06-10
DOI:10.11840/j.issn.1001-6392.2019.05.001
中文关键词:  生态海堤  海洋生态文明  海岸工程  海岸防护  滨海湿地
英文关键词:ecological seawall  marine ecological civilization  coastal engineering  coast protection  coastal wetlands
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41606192);中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室、青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室开放基金(KLMEES201607);自然资源部第四海洋研究所博士科研启动经费(201804)
作者单位E-mail
赵鹏 国家海洋信息中心天津300171 自然资源部第四海洋研究所广西 北海536000 zp-zp@l63.com 
朱祖浩 自然资源部第四海洋研究所广西 北海536000  
江洪友 自然资源部第四海洋研究所广西 北海536000国家海洋局天津海洋环境监测中心站天津300457  
李利 自然资源部第四海洋研究所广西 北海536000国家海洋局北海海洋环境监测中心站广西 北海536000  
崔晓健 国家海洋信息中心天津300171 3902185561@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      海堤在防范海洋灾害,保障生命财产安全的同时,也造成了滨海湿地丧失或破碎化,生物多样性降低,消纳潮功能减弱,水质净化能力减弱等问题。生态海堤是满足海洋灾害防护要求、模拟滨海生态系统结构和生态过程,具有生态功能和美学价值的复合生态系统,具备抵御风暴潮涨水、抵御海浪侵蚀、防止水土流失、维护生物多样性和改善水质等功能,主要包括离岸防护、海向浅滩、海堤堤身三个系统。演替理论、边缘效应理论、中度干扰假说、生态位理论等生态学基础理论为生态海堤建设提供了理论依据。生态海堤建设应遵循防护优先、注重生态、因地制宜、自我维持的原则,通过减缓坡度、恢复植被或生境、增加微生境和提高表面粗糙程度等手段实现。生态海堤的关键技术主要包括设计技术、材料技术、系统集成技术和全过程管理技术。针对生态海堤建设存在的问题,下一步应加强基础研究和关键技术研发,开展生态海堤建设区划,建立标准体系,构建修复物种种质资源库,创新产业化发展模式。
英文摘要:
      While protecting against disasters and ensuring the safety of life and property, seawalls also cause problems suchas coastal wetlands loss and fragmentation, biodiversity reduction, weakening of water exchange and its purification capacity.The ecological seawall is a complex ecosystem that meets the requirements of marine disaster prevention, simulates coastal ecosystems structure and ecological processes, and it has ecological functions and aesthetic values. The functions of seawalls include protecting against storm surges and waves, preventing soil erosion, maintaining biodiversity, and improving water quality. It is consisted of three components, offshore protection, sea shoal and seawall. With the basic ecology theories including succession theory, edge effect theory, moderate interference hypothesis, niche theory, etc. as the theoretical basis, the construction of ecological seawall follows the principles of protection first, ecological focus, local adaptation and self-sustainment. Slowing down slope, restoring vegetation or habitats, increasing microhabitats and surface roughness are all effective means for the construction process. The key technologies mainly include designing, materials, system integration and whole process management technologies. It is strongly recommended to strengthen science and technology research, conduct an ecological seawall construction zoning, establish standards and speciesbank for restoration, and innovate the industrialization model.
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