张小霞,陈新平,米硕,龚泽林,林鹏智.我国生物海岸修复现状及展望[J].海洋通报,2020,(1):1-11
我国生物海岸修复现状及展望
ehabilitation of biological coasts of China
投稿时间:2018-12-11  修订日期:2019-07-28
DOI:
中文关键词:  生物海岸  生态修复  柽柳群落  草本群落  红树林  珊瑚礁
英文关键词:biological coasts  ecological restoration  Tamarix community  herb community  mangrove  coral reef
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (51279120;41506042)
作者单位E-mail
张小霞 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室四川 成都 610065 ZXXSCU@qq.com 
陈新平 自然资源部海洋减灾中心北京 100194  
米硕 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室四川 成都 610065  
龚泽林 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室四川 成都 610065  
林鹏智 四川大学 水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室四川 成都 610065 cvelinpz@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      介绍了我国生物海岸的分布现状,总结出以柽柳为代表的灌木群落、以芦苇为代表的草本群落、以红树林为代表的常绿灌木与乔木群落以及珊瑚礁是我国海岸带四类典型生物群落。生物海岸的生态、旅游、渔牧和科研价值极高,但从20世纪 50年代起,由于对生物海岸的价值认识不足,我国生物海岸被大量破坏,主要破坏原因可归纳为:1) 土地功能转换式开发引起的红树林和草本岸线破坏;2) 过度采挖及环境恶化引起的珊瑚礁破坏;3) 土壤盐碱化引起的柽柳群落退化。从 20世纪 80年代至今,一系列海岸带保护与生态修复的举措陆续实施,减缓了我国海岸带生态加速破坏的态势,较好地 保护和修复了我国生物海岸,其中最重要的举措包括:1) 设立生物海岸湿地公园和自然保护区;2) 建立健全生物海岸保护相关法律体系;3) 开展典型生物海岸相关研究与修复技术探索;4) 推进并实施“十三五”海洋规划中三大海洋重点工程。为了解我国海岸带生态修复的现状,于 2017—2018年期间,分别在山东日照、潍坊,上海,广东汕头、汕尾以及徐闻进行了实地调研和测量,调研结果表明:在政策支持下,调研地区的生物海岸得到了很好的保护和修复,推进我国海岸带生态修复步入快速发展阶段。基于调研成果,指出我国在海岸带生态修复中应特别重视的一些问题。
英文摘要:
      This study introduces the overall distribution of biological coasts of China, and concludes that Tamarix community, herb community, mangrove forest, and coral reef are four representative types of biological coasts which are widely distributed along the coasts of China. The biological characteristics and the distribution of the four typical biological coasts are summarized. China's biological coasts suffered great damage since 1950 due to a lack of cognition of its extremely high value in ecologic, tourism, fishery and scientific research. Three main damages are pointed out,1) mangrove and herb coasts damaged by land use conversion, 2)coral reef destructed by excessive excavation and environmental deterioration, and 3)Tamarix community degradation caused by soil salinity increasing. Along with these damages, China has made continuous efforts to reduce and restore biological coasts since the 1980s,1) biological parks and coast reserves have been constructed, 2)law systems concerning the protection of biological coasts have been established, 3) many researches on biological coasts and their recovery technology have been conducted, 4) three major marine projects which are tightly related to biological coast protection and restoration were proposed in the 13th Five-Year Plan of China, progresses have been made ever after. To find out the restoring effect of the four typical biological coasts, field surveys at Rizhao, Weifang, Shanghai, Shantou, Shanwei and Xuwen were conducted during 2017 and 2018. Preliminary results showed that China's biological coast restoration is developing rapidly. The ecological, environmental and tourism value of biological coasts, have been improved significantly. Considering the current restoration and development of the biological coasts of China, we pointed out several important matters which should be highly valued in future restoration
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