伊锋,李雪艳,许国纯,战超,张俊斌,董程,王庆.潮滩干湿转换的地貌发育物理模型及动力机制[J].海洋通报,2020,(3):372-380
潮滩干湿转换的地貌发育物理模型及动力机制
Physical model of landform development and its dynamic mechanism response to dry-wet conversion of tidal flat
投稿时间:2019-07-11  修订日期:2019-11-06
DOI:
中文关键词:  黄河三角洲  潮滩  物理模型  Argus 系统  潮汐作用
英文关键词:Yellow River Delta  tidal flat  physical model  Argus system  tidal effect
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (U1706220;41901006;ZR2019BD005;51709140)
作者单位E-mail
伊锋 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025 yifeng19940508@163.com 
李雪艳 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025 yanzi03@126.com 
许国纯 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025  
战超 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025  
张俊斌 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025  
董程 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025  
王庆 鲁东大学 海岸研究所山东 烟台 264025  
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中文摘要:
      为研究潮汐作用下潮滩干湿转换过程中的潮沟系统形成和地貌发育,使用黄河三角洲潮滩天然粉砂建立试验室物理模型,并首次将 Argus 系统引入试验,用于监测现场,模拟在一定坡度下潮滩干湿转换过程的地表变化,分析了天然粉砂孔 隙内潴留空气对潮滩地形起伏的动力机制,研究了不均匀流对地貌发育的影响。研究表明,整平均匀、坡度均一的干潮滩,在正向潮流、潮汐作用下,粉砂孔隙内潴留空气排出滞后于潮流淹没,承压后沿水平和垂直方向随机运移,导致平坦的潮滩表面形成细微的地形起伏。这种初始起伏会进一步影响潮流运动和潮滩冲淤,从而形成各种潮滩地貌形态,并决定着潮滩地貌空间分布。高潮滩形成高密度和连通复杂的不规则潮沟-碗口状塌陷系统;中潮滩和低潮滩较为平坦,在微小陡坎和碗口状塌陷上方发育有沿岸线平行方向排列分布的树枝状细密潮沟,且有明显的溯源侵蚀现象。受不均匀水流影响,中心轴附近潮滩率先淹没,孔隙内潴留空气排赶到两侧,导致潮滩中间地表较为平坦,两侧地表变化大,且沙波偏移以中部为对称轴,两侧对称。
英文摘要:
      To explore formation of tidal creek and landform development when tidal flat from dry to wet under tidal effect,the physical model was established using the natural silt in the Yellow River Delta and the Argus was used in the model for the first time. Then simulating the landform change of tidal flat from dry to wet under gentle gradient and analyzing the dynamic mechanism of the reserved air in the silt to landform change and the influence of uneven flow on landform development. The results indicated that the reserved air in the silt discharged slower than tidal flat submersion under the influence of current and tidal on the smooth dry tidal flat. When the water put pressure on the air, the air in the silt would move in the horizontal and vertical directions which accounts for the formation of subtle landform changes. The initial landform changes further affected tidal flat development, then formed various landforms and determined the later spatial distribution. The high tidal flat formed high-density and connection complex system of tidal creek-bowl collapse. The medium tidal flat and low tidal flat were flat. However above the subtle scarp and bowl collapse developed dendritic tidal creek which was parallel to shoreline and had obvious headward erosion. Influenced by uneven water flow, the tidal flat in the central axis area was first submerged then reserved air in the silt was pushed to both sides which resulting the middle of tidal flat relatively flat and big changes happened in the both sides. In addition, sand waves are symmetric with the central axis.
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