周鑫,陈培雄,黄杰,王权明.国土空间规划的海洋分区研究[J].海洋通报,2020,(4):
国土空间规划的海洋分区研究
Research on marine zoning in Territorial Spatial Planning
投稿时间:2019-12-31  修订日期:2020-03-12
DOI:10.11840/j.issn.1001-6392.2020.04.002
中文关键词:  国土空间规划  海洋空间  功能分区  国土空间用途管制  主体功能区
英文关键词:Territorial Spatial Planning  marine space  functional zoning  territorial space use regulations  major function zoning
基金项目:国家海洋局第二海洋研究所及中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(JG1801)
作者单位E-mail
周鑫 自然资源部第二海洋研究所浙江 杭州 310012 hangzhouxin@yeah.net 
陈培雄 自然资源部第二海洋研究所浙江 杭州 310012 chenpeixiong@126.com 
黄杰 国家海洋环境监测中心辽宁 大连 116023  
王权明 国家海洋环境监测中心辽宁 大连 116023  
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中文摘要:
      国土空间分区作为国土空间规划编制和自然资源统一管理的基础,对整个规划体系具有重要的支撑作用。在统一的国土空间规划体系下,用海分区既有其独立性与特殊性,也面临着陆海统筹、生态文明建设、海洋高质量发展等政策提出的 新要求。文章系统梳理了 1983 年以来海洋功能分区体系 4 次演变历程,结合国土空间规划改革对分区体系的内在需求,指出海洋功能分区体系存在未覆盖海域全域,分区层级的尺度、分工、内容和结构与国土空间规划的要求不一致,分区方案未考虑用途管制的需求,以及陆海统筹不足等问题。在剖析现有各类规划政策分区、管制分区和功能分区在国土空间规划体系中的定位和作用的基础上,提出以海洋主体功能区为基础,海洋生态红线为底线,以原海洋功能区划分区为主体,将无居民海岛纳入规划范围,并在生态、农业、城镇空间的大框架下统筹协调海陆分区,形成国土空间规划中的海洋分区体系。全国和省级国土空间规划统筹海陆主体功能,划定主体功能区,并建立海洋产业保障区名录、无居民海岛保护与利用名录和海洋自然保护地名录。市县级国土空间规划划定“功能+管制”的利用分区,共划分出海洋保护区、海洋发展区和海洋保留3个一级分区以及核心保护区、一般控制区、海水增养殖区等 12 个二级分区。
英文摘要:
      As the basis of Territorial Spatial Planning (TSP) and integrated management of natural resources, the zoning system plays an important supporting role in the whole planning system. Under the unified system of TSP, marine zoning is not only independent and special, but also faces the new requirements raised by land-sea coordination, ecological civilization construction and high-quality development of the ocean. This paper systematically reviews the four evolutions of Marine Functional Zoning (MFZ) system since 1983, and finds that MFZ system does not cover the whole sea areas, and is insufficient in land-sea coordination. The scale, division, content and structure of the zoning are inconsistent with the requirements of TSP, and the zoning system does not take the demand of territorial space use regulations into consideration. Based on the analysis of different roles that policy, regulatory and functional zoning played in TSP, this paper proposes to take the marine major functional zones as the basis, marine ecological red line as the bottom line, marine functional areas as the body, with uninhabited islands included, and under the overall framework of ecology, agriculture and urban space to establish the marine zoning system in TSP. The national and provincial TSP defines the major function of each county, and establishes the list of marine industry support districts, uninhabited islands for protection, and utilization and marine natural reserves. The municipal and county-level TSP delimits "functional & regulation" zoning, which consists of two grades, including 3 types of grade and 12 types of 域 grade in further.
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