陈宏伟,陈燕珍,刘宪华,屠建波,白璐.天津入海排污口微塑料分布特征[J].海洋通报,2020,(4):
天津入海排污口微塑料分布特征
Distribution characteristics of microplastics in land-based outlets in Tianjin
投稿时间:2019-10-14  修订日期:2020-01-15
DOI:10.11840/j.issn.1001-6392.2020.04.015
中文关键词:  微塑料  排污口  渤海  分布
英文关键词:microplastic  sewage outlet  Bohai Sea  distribution
基金项目:国家重点研发计划 (2019YFC1407800);天津市科技支撑计划重点项目 (19YFZCSN01130)
作者单位E-mail
陈宏伟 天津大学 环境科学与工程学院天津 300350 国家海洋局天津海洋环境监测中心站天津 300457 Kyriechen13@163.com 
陈燕珍 国家海洋局天津海洋环境监测中心站天津 300457  
刘宪华 天津大学 环境科学与工程学院天津 300350 lxh@tju.edu.cn 
屠建波 国家海洋局天津海洋环境监测中心站天津 300457  
白璐 天津大学 环境科学与工程学院天津 300350 国家海洋局天津海洋环境监测中心站天津 300457  
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中文摘要:
      近年来微塑料 (Microplastics,MPs) 污染受到全球关注。MPs 在海洋环境中广泛存在,在海水、沉积物和生物体中都有检出 MPs。陆源污染被认为是海洋 MPs 的主要来源,然而针对入海排污口中 MPs 分布的研究却很少。本文在天津海岸线的排污口采集微塑料样品,消解处理后用光学显微镜和显微红外光谱仪进行了检测。结果表明微塑料主要有纤维、碎片、薄膜三种形状,占比最多的是纤维状,占比为 75.6 %;粒径大小为 1 ~ 5 mm 占比较多,为 39.5 %;主要有黄色、白色、黑色、红色、蓝色、绿色 6 种颜色,其中黑色占比最多,占比为 33.0 %。MPs 主要成分有聚氯乙烯 (PVC)、聚酰胺 (PA)、聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇脂(PET)、纤维素塑料(CE)、丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯共聚合物(ABS)、环氧树脂(EP)、聚丙烯聚乙烯共混物(PP-PE)、聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯 (PMMA) 等 8 种组分。根据数据分析,天津入海排污口的 MPs 主要来源于居民污水、塑料包装业、服装纺织业、旅游业和渔业。研究结果对渤海 MPs 治理具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, microplastics (MPs) pollution has attracted worldwide attention. MPs are widespread in marine environment, and have been detected in seawater, sediments and organisms. Land-based pollution is considered to be one of the main sources of marine MPs. However, little research has been done on MPs distribution in marine sewage outlets. In this paper, the microplastic samples were collected along the Tianjin coastline, and the samples after digestion were detected by optical microscope and micro-infrared spectrometer. The results show that there are three types of MPs in the sewage outlet: fibre, fragment and film. The content of fibre was found the largest, with a proportion of 75.6 %. The content of MPs with paricle size of 1-5 mm is the largest, with a proportion of 39.5 %. There are 6 colors of the MPs : yellow, white, black, red, blue and green, among which the black MPs is the most, with a proportion of 33.0 %. The main composition of MPs were polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyamide (PA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cellulose plastics (CE), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS), epoxy resin (EP), polypropylene polyethylene blend (PP-PE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). According to the above data, the MPs of Tianjin sewage outlet may mainly come from residential sewage, plastic packaging industry, clothing and textile industry, tourism and fishery. These results will be of great significance to the governance of MPs in the Bohai Sea
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