刘坤娜,毛帆,张翔宇,林玥,张扬,喻子牛.Thraustochytrium caudivorum—一种香港牡蛎新型原生生物寄生虫[J].海洋通报,2021,(1):
Thraustochytrium caudivorum—一种香港牡蛎新型原生生物寄生虫
Thraustochytrium caudivorum-a new protozoan parasite in Crassostrea hongkongensis
投稿时间:2020-03-17  修订日期:2020-06-20
DOI:
中文关键词:  破囊壶菌  Thraustochytrium caudivorum  牡蛎鳃组织  寄生虫
英文关键词:Thraustochytrids  Thraustochytrium caudivorum  oyster gill tissue  parasite
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (31572640;31572661)
作者单位E-mail
刘坤娜 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301中国科学院大学北京 100049 18811361078@163.com 
毛帆 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301  
张翔宇 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301中国科学院大学北京 100049  
林玥 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301中国科学院大学北京 100049  
张扬 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301  
喻子牛 中国科学院南海海洋研究所 中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室广东 广州 510301 carlzyu@scsio.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      破囊壶菌 (Thraustochytrids) 是一类具有分解作用的海洋异养原生生物。研究表明破囊壶菌可对软体动物、海洋扁虫类造成消耗性疾病。本研究从发病的牡蛎鳃组织中分离出一种未在牡蛎中记录过的破囊壶菌寄生虫,经形态学及分子生物 学分析后,鉴定为一种破囊壶菌寄生虫 Thraustochytriu caudivorum。利用倒置显微镜和激光共聚焦超高分辨系统观察到 T.caudivorum 的生活史可分为游动孢子、营养细胞、孢子囊和变形虫四个阶段。游动孢子沉降成营养细胞,营养细胞再通过二分裂或形成孢子囊的方式释放不动的和可游动的孢子。破囊壶菌的形态大小变化迥异,本研究利用流式细胞仪和共聚焦系统探究了不同盐度对细胞大小的影响。结果表明,随盐度增大,体积小的细胞占比增多;在盐度为 15 ppt 时,细胞增殖缓慢,体积变大;而在盐度为 20 和 25 ppt 时,细胞体积变小,增殖速率加快。25 ppt 盐度条件下,游动孢子数目最多。本研究首次从香港牡蛎鳃组织中分离出 T. caudivorum 寄生虫,并确立了其与破囊壶菌其他属之间的系统发育关系。
英文摘要:
      Thraustochytrids, as an important marine decomposer, is a kind of marine heterotrophic protists. Previous studies have shown that some members of thethraustochytrids may cause severe wasting diseases in mollusks and flatworms. A potential new parasite was isolated from pathogenetic oysters忆 gill tissue. After identified by morphological and molecular biological methods, it was found as Thraustochytrium caudivorum. Additionally, four stages of T. caudivorum life history, zoospores,vegetative cells, the sporangia and the amoeboid stage were observed by optics inverted microscope and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Zoospores settled on the substrate and formed vegetative cells. The vegetative cells underwent binary fission or developed to sporangium for releases of the immobile and mobile zoospores. As the cell size of T. caudivorum varied greatly, the effects of different salinities on cell size using flow cytometry and con-focal microscopy were also investigated. The results show that the proportion of small cells increased in a salinity-dependent manner. At the salinity of 15 ppt, the proliferation rate was slow with a large cell in size, while cell size got smaller and the proliferation rate was accelerated at the salinity of 20 and 25 ppt. At the salinity of 25 ppt, the maximum number of zoospores was found. This is the first detailed observation and analysis of T. caudivorum parasite isolated from the tissues of HongKong oysters and the relationship between the isolated T. caudivorum and other genera of Thraustochytrids has been established
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